Casting is a selection for a role in a cinema or in a theater. Also it is viewing or listening to models and singers for popular TV shows and Beauty contests. Casting, as a necessary part of film production, came to us from West, but in other countries the artists also held screen tests.
Hollywood has no idea what casting is all about before 1949. Marion Dougherty was a pioneer in this industry; she was first real casting director in USA.
In early Hollywood times the film company simply signed a contract with the actor, and he was obliged to do everything, regardless of whether the role was good for him or not. Actors to play roles were not selected, they were simply appointed. And, of course, patronage and contacts decided everything.
That was until Marion Dougherty destroyed the whole system. Hollywood always used standards, the actors were chosen by conventional types of "beauty", "femme fatale" or "thug". Truly talented and diverse artists simply did not have the opportunity to demonstrate their potential to the producer. laugh or the ability to keep a significant pause. She looked at the actor and already knew
Marion created cards for each actor, during the trials; she recorded something special about every person. For example, an unusual what role he will play. She not only wrote the rules for talent scouting, but made the production process more efficient in the long run.
Later, her notes helped to start career for many celebrities and her lists have become a full database. The life of Marion was amazing, so Tom Donahue in 2012 made a documentary about her called "Casting by". Doherty’ heritage is a whole generation of casting directors. They used Marion's methods, her approach. Most highly paid actors fought for their loyalty. This profession has finally earned a separate title in the movies, but, unfortunately, has not received an Oscar.
Martin Scorsese said: «A smart casting is 90 % of the movie’s success». Can you imagine the world with Merlin Monroe played Holly Golightly in «Breakfast at Tiffany's” instead of Audrey Hepburn? Or maybe John Travolta ran down the road and his girlfriend screaming: "Run, Forrest, run"? But these actors were considered for the main roles in our favorite films.